The Missing Cross to Purity

The Journal of George Fox - 1655 - 1656 - Further Ministry and Lancaster Jail <page 2 >

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Parting from him, we went to Honiton, and at our inn inquired what people there were in the town that feared God, and we sent for them. Some of the particular Baptists responded and came to us with whom we had great deal of reasoning. I told them, 'they held their doctrine of particular election in Esau's, Cain's, and Ishmael's nature; not Jacob, the second birth; but they must be born again before they could enter the kingdom of God. And that as the promise of God was to the seed, not as many, but as one, which was Christ; so the election and choice stands in Christ; and they must be such as walk in his light, grace, spirit, and truth.' And many more words we had with them.
From there we passed to Topsham, and stayed over First-day; but the innkeeper and his people were rude. The next morning we sent out some inquiries to the priests and professors; then some rude professors came to our inn, and they would have stopped us from leaving, had we not gone when we did. I wore a girdle, which through forgetfulness I left behind me, and afterwards sent for it to the innkeeper; but he would not let me have it again. Afterwards when he was troubled in his mind about it, he burnt it so he would not be "bewitched by it," as he said; yet when he had burned it, he was more troubled than before. Notwithstanding the rudeness of the place, some were convinced; and a meeting was afterwards settled in that town, which has continued ever since.

After this we passed to Totnes, a dark town. We lodged there at an inn; and that night Edward Pyot was sick, but the Lord's power healed him, so that the next day we got to King's Bridge, and at our inn inquired for the sober people of the town. They directed us to Nicholas Tripe and his wife; and we went to their house. They sent for the priest, with whom we had some discussion; but he was confounded and quickly left us. But Nicholas Tripe and his wife were convinced; and since then there has been a good meeting of Friends in that country. In the evening we returned to our inn. There were many people drinking in the house and I was moved by the Lord to go among them, and direct them to the light ‘which Christ the heavenly man had enlightened them with and by which they might see all their evil ways, words, and deeds; and by the same light they might also see Christ Jesus their savior.' The innkeeper stood uneasy, seeing it hindered his guests from drinking; and as soon as the last words were out of my mouth, he snatched up the candle, and said, 'Come, here is a light for you to go into your chamber.' The next morning, when he was cool, I spoke to him of it, and told him, 'What an uncivil thing it was for him so to do;' then warning him of the day of the Lord, we got ready and left.

We came next day to Plymouth, refreshed ourselves at our inn, and went to Robert Cary's, where he had a very precious meeting. At this meeting was Elizabeth Trelawny, daughter to a baronet. She being somewhat poor of hearing, came close up to me, and cupped her ear very close to me while I spoke; and she was convinced. After this meeting doctrinal disputing Baptists arrived; but the Lord's power came over them, and Elizabeth Trelawny gave testimony to the power; {she came and said that George is over all, and with a loud voice}. A fine meeting was settled there in the Lord's power, which has continued ever since; where many faithful Friends have been convinced.

From there we passed into Cornwall, and came to an inn in the parish of Menhenniot. At night we had a meeting at Edward Hancock's, to which came Thomas Mounce and a priest with a large number of people. We brought the priest to confess that he was a minister made by the state and maintained by the state; and he was put to shame and silenced, so he went his way; but many of the people stayed. I directed them to the 'light of Christ, by which they might see their sins, and their savior Christ Jesus, the way to God, their mediator to make peace between God and them; their shepherd to feed them, and their prophet  to teach them.' I directed them to the spirit of God in themselves, by which they might know the scriptures, and be led into all truth; and by the spirit might know God, and in it have unity one with another. Many were convinced at that time, and came under Christ's teaching; and there are fine gatherings in the name of Jesus in those parts at this time.
We traveled from there through Penryn, and came to Helston; but we could not find out the names or locations of any sober people because of the depravity of the innkeepers. At length we came to a village where some Baptists and sober people lived with whom we had discussion. Some of them were brought to confess that they stumbled at the light of Christ. They wished us to stay with them; but we departed to Market-Jew; and having taken up our lodging at an inn, we sent messages that night inquiring for those who feared the Lord. Next morning the mayor and aldermen gathered together with the high sheriff of the county and sent the constables to order us come before them. We asked them for their warrant; and saying that they had none, we told them, we would not go along with them without a warrant. Upon the return of the constables without us, they sent their sergeants, and we asked them for their warrant. They said they had none; but told us the mayor and aldermen waited for us. We told them that the mayor and his company did not do well to trouble us in our inn, and that we would not go with them without a warrant. So they went away and came again; and when we asked them for their warrant, one them plucked his mace from under his cloak. We asked them whether it was their custom to molest and trouble strangers in their inns and lodgings? After some time Edward Pyot went to the mayor and aldermen and had a great deal of discussion with them; but the Lord's power gave him dominion over them all. When he returned several of the officers came to us; and we laid before them the incivility and unworthiness of their carriage towards us, the servants of Lord God, by stopping and troubling us in our inns and lodgings; and what an unchristian act it was. Before we left the town, I wrote a little paper to be sent to the seven parishes at the Laud's End, a copy of which follows:

The mighty day of the Lord has come and is coming, when all hearts shall be made manifest, and the secrets of every one's heart shall be revealed by the light of Jesus, who lights every man who comes into the world, that all men through him might believe, and that the world might have life through him, who said, "Learn of me;" and of whom God said, "This is my beloved son, listen to him" Christ has come to teach his people himself; and everyone that will not hear this prophet which God has raised up, and which Moses spoke of, when he said, "Like unto me will God raise you up a prophet, him shall you hear:" everyone, I say, that will not hear this prophet, is to be cut off. Those who despised Moses's law, died under the hand of two or three witnesses; but how much greater punishment will come upon them that neglect this great salvation, Christ Jesus, who said,"Learn of me, I am the way, the truth, and the life;" who enlightens every man that comes into the world; which light lets him see his evil ways and evil deeds. But if you hate that light, and go on in evil, this light will be your condemner. Therefore, now you have time, prize it: for this is the day of your visitation, and salvation offered to you. Every one of you has a light from Christ; which lets you see you should not lie, nor do wrong to any, nor swear, nor curse, nor take God's name in vain, nor steal. It is the light that shows you these evil deeds: which if you love, and come unto it, and follow it, it will lead you to Christ, who is the way to the Father, from whom it comes; where no unrighteousness enters, nor ungodliness. If you hate this light, it will be your condemnation; but if you love it, and come to it, you will come to Christ; and it will bring you off from all the world's teachers and ways, to learn of Christ, and will preserve you from all the evils of the world, and all the deceivers in it.

George Fox

A Friend who was with me had this paper with him, and when we had gone three or four miles from Market-Jew towards the west, we met a man upon the road and gave him a copy of the above paper. {As soon as Will Salt told me he had given the paper to the man, I had a vision of being taken prisoner, several miles before it occurred. For giving this man a copy of the above paper, George Fox, Edward Pyot, and William Salt were later sent to prison}. This man proved to be a servant to Peter Ceely, a major in the army and a justice of peace in that county. He rode before us to a place called St. Ives and showed the paper to his master. When we came to Ives, Edward Pyot's horse needed new horseshoes. While he was getting his horse shod, I walked to the seaside. When I came back, I found the town in an uproar. They were haling Edward Pyot and the other Friend before Major Ceely. I followed them into the justice's house, though they did not lay hands upon me. When we came in, the house was full of rude people; at which point I asked, whether there was an officer among them, to keep the people civil? Major Ceely said that he was a magistrate. I told him, 'then he should exhibit gravity and sobriety and use his authority to keep the people civil because I never saw any people more rude; the Indians were probably more christian than they were.' After awhile they produced the paper before mentioned, and asked, whether it was mine? I said, yes. Then he tendered the oath abjuration to us. At which point I put my hand in my pocket, and produced the answer to it, which had been given to the protector. After I had given him that, he examined us all, one by one. He had with him a silly young priest, who asked us many frivolous questions; among the many questions, he desired to cut my hair, which then was pretty long; but I was not to cut it, though many were offended by it. I told them, 'I had no pride in it; and it was not my doing that it was long.' At length the justice put us under a guard of soldiers, who were hard and wild, like the justice himself; nevertheless we 'warned the people the day of the Lord, and declared the truth to them.' The next day he sent us guarded by a party of horse, with swords and pistols, who took us to Redruth. On First-day the soldiers wanted us to travel with them; but we told them, it was their sabbath, and it was not customary to travel on that day. Several of the town's people gathered around us; and while I held the soldiers in discussion, Edward Pyot spoke to the people; and afterwards Edward Pyot held the soldiers in discussion while I spoke to the people. In the meantime the other Friend backed away and went to the steeple-house to speak to the priest and people. The people were exceedingly desperate in a mighty rage against him, and they abused him. Also, when the soldiers missed him, they went into a great rage and seemed ready to kill us; but I declared the day of the Lord and the word of eternal life to the people that gathered about us. In the afternoon the soldiers were resolved to take us away; so we mounted our horses and left. When we had ridden to the town's end, I was moved of the Lord to go back again to speak to the old man of the house. The soldiers drew out their pistols and swore I would not go back. But I did not heed them and rode back, and they rode after me. So I cleared myself to the old man and the people; and then returned to the journey with the soldiers, reproving them along the way for being so rude and violent.

At night we were brought to a town then called Smethick, renamed Falmouth. It was the evening of the First-day and the chief constable of the place and many sober people came to our inn; some of the people began to ask questions about us. We told them that we were prisoners for truth's sake; and we had a long discussion with them concerning the things of God. They were very sober and very loving to us. Some of them were convinced and stood faithful ever after.

When the constable and these people left, others came in, who were also very civil; and they went away very loving. When everyone had left we went to our chamber to go to bed; and about the eleventh hour Edward Pyot said, ‘I will shut the door, it may be someone may come to harm us.' Afterwards we understood captain Keat, who commanded the party, proposed to have attacked us that night; but the door being bolted, he missed his design. Next morning captain Keat brought a relative of his, a rude, wicked man, and put him into the room, while he stood outside the room. This evil-minded man walked huffing up and down the room; I told him to fear the Lord. Upon which he ran at me, struck me with both his hands; and clapping his leg behind me, would have thrown me down, if he could; but he was not able, for I stood stiff and still, and let him strike. As I looked towards the door, I saw captain Keat look on, and watch his relative beat and abuse me. Upon which I said to him, 'Keat, do you allow this?’ He said he did. I said, 'Is this manly or civil to have us under a guard, and put a man to abuse and beat us? Is this manly, civil, or Christian?’ I asked one of our Friends to send for the constables, and they came. Then I asked the captain to let the constables see his warrant or order, by which he arrested us; which he did; and his warrant was to conduct us safe to captain Fox, governor of Pendennis castle; and if the governor should not be at home, he was to convey us to Lanceston jail. I told him, he had broken his order concerning us; for we, who were his prisoners were to be safely conducted; but he had brought a man to beat and abuse us; so he having broken his order, I wished the constable to keep the warrant. Accordingly he did, and told the soldiers, they might go their ways, for he would take charge of the prisoners; and if it cost twenty shillings in charges to escort us, they would not have the warrant again. I showed the soldiers the baseness of their carriage towards us; and they walked up and down the house in their disappointment, being pitifully blank and down. The constables went to the castle, and told the officers what they had done. The officers showed great dislike of captain Keat's base carriage towards us; and told the constables that major-general Desborough was coming to Bodmin, and that we should meet him; and it was likely he would free us. Meanwhile our old guard of soldiers came by way of entreaty to us, and promised they would be civil to us, if we would go with them. This took most of the morning until about eleven; and then, upon the soldiers' entreaty, and promise to be more civil, the constables gave them the order again, and we went with them. The civility and courtesy of the constables and people of that town was great towards us. They kindly entertained us, and the Lord rewarded them with his truth; for many of them have since been convinced of the truth and are gathered into the name of Jesus, and sit under Christ, their teacher and savior.

Captain Keat who commanded our guard, understanding that captain Fox, who was governor of Pendennis castle, was gone to meet major-general Desborough, did not take us there; but took us directly to Bodmin, on the way to Lanceston. We met major-general Desborough on the way. The captain of his troop that rode before him knew me and said, ‘Oh, Mr. Fox, why are you here?’ I replied, ‘I am a prisoner! 'Alas,' he said, 'for what?' I told him, ‘I had been arrested as I was traveling.' 'Then,' he said, ‘I will speak to my lord, and he will set you at liberty. So he came from the head of his troop, and rode up to the coach, and spoke to the major-general. We also gave him an account how we were arrested. He began to speak against the light of Christ, for which I reproved him. Then he told the soldiers, they might escort us to Lanceston; for he could not stay to talk with us for fear his horses should take cold.

So we were taken to Bodmin that night; and when we came to our inn, captain Keat, who was in before us, put me into a room and went his way. When I came into the room, a man with a naked rapier in his hand stood there. Upon which I left the room and called for captain Keat, and said, ‘What now, Keat, what trick have you played now, to put me into a room where there is a man with his naked rapier? What is your end in this?' ‘Oh,' he said, ‘pray hold your tongue; for if you speak to this man, we can not control him, he is so devilish.' 'Then,' I said, ‘do you put me into a room where there is an uncontrollable a man with a naked rapier? What an unworthy, base trick this is? And to put me single into this room away from the rest of my Friends that were fellow prisoners with me?' Thus his plot was discovered, and the mischief they intended was prevented. Afterwards we got another room, where we were together all night; and in the evening we declared the truth to the people; but they were dark and hardened. The soldiers, notwithstanding their fair promises, were very rude and wicked to us again, and sat up drinking and roaring all night.
Next day we were brought to Lanceston, where captain Keat delivered us to the jailer. Now there was no Friend or friendly people near us; and the people of the town were a dark, hardened people. The jailer required us to pay seven shillings a week for food for our horses, and seven shillings a week each for our diet. After some time, several sober persons came to see us, and some of the town were convinced; and many friendly people out of several parts of the country came to visit us, and were convinced. Then a great rage among their professors and priests was raised against us. They said, ‘This people thee and thou all men without respect, and will not put off their hats, nor bow the knee to any man; but we shall see when the assize comes, whether they will dare to thee and thou the judge and keep on their hats before him.' They expected that we would be hanged at the assize. But all this worried us very little; for we saw how God would stain the world's honor and glory; and we were commanded not to seek that honor or give the honor to man; but knew the honor that comes from God only, and we sought that.

It was nine weeks from the time of our commitment to the assizes; at which time many people came from far and near to hear the trial of the Quakers. Captain Bradden camped with his horse troop there, and his soldiers and the sheriff's men escorted us to the court through the multitude that filled the streets; and they had difficulty to getting us through the crowd. Besides that, the doors and windows were filled with people looking at us. When we were brought into the court, we stood a pretty long while with our hats on, and all was quiet; and I was moved to say, 'Peace be among you.’ Judge Glyn, a Welshman, then chief justice of England, said to the jailer, 'What are these you have brought here into the court?' 'Prisoners, my lord,' said he. 'Why do you not put off your hats?' said the judge to us. We said nothing. 'Put off your hats,' said the judge again. Still we said nothing. Then said the judge, ‘The court commands you to put off your hats.' Then I spoke, and said, ‘Where did ever any magistrate, king, or judge, from Moses to Daniel command any to put off their hats when they came before them in their courts, either among the Jews, (the people of God), or among the heathen? And if the law of England commands any such thing, show me that law either written or printed.' The judge grew very angry, and said, 'I do not carry my law books on my back.' 'But,' said I  'tell me where it is printed in any statute book, that I may read it.' Then said the judge, 'Take him away, prevaricator! I will ferk him.' So they took us away and put us among the thieves. Presently after he called to the jailer, 'Bring them up again. Come,' said he, 'where does it say that they had hats from Moses to Daniel? Come, answer me; I have you fast now.' I replied, 'You may read in third of Daniel that the three children were cast into the fiery furnace by Nebuchadnezzar's command, with their coats, their hose, and their hats on.' This plain instance stopped him; so that not having any thing else to the point, he cried again, 'Take them away, jailer.' Accordingly we were taken away and thrust in among the thieves; where we were kept a long time; and then, without being called again, the sheriff's men and the troopers made way for us to get through the crowd, and escorted us back to prison with a multitude of people following us and with whom at the jail we had held a lot of discussion and reasoning. We had some good books to define our principles and to inform people of the truth; which the judge and justices hearing of, they sent captain Bradden for them, who came and violently took our books from us. Some books were even pulled from Edward Pyot's hands, and they carried them away; so we never got them again.

In the afternoon we were taken again into the judge's chamber by the jailer, sheriff's men, and troopers, who had a huge job to get us through the crowd of people. When we were in the court, waiting to be called and observing the jury men and many others swearing, it grieved my life to see that those who professed christianity would so openly disobey and break the command of Christ and the apostle James. And I was moved of the Lord to give forth a paper against swearing, which was all around me, to the grand and petty juries.

Concerning Swearing

Take heed of giving people oaths to swear: for Christ our Lord and master, said, "Swear not at all: but let your communication be yes, yes, and no, no: for whatever else is said comes from evil." If any were to suffer death, it must be by the hand of two or three witnesses; and the hands of the witnesses were to be first upon him to put him to death. The apostle James said, "My brethren, above all things swear not, neither by heaven, nor by earth, nor by any other oath, for fear that you fall into condemnation." Hence you may see those that swear fall into condemnation, and are out of Christ's and the apostle's doctrine. Every one of you has a light from Christ, who said, "I am the light of the world," and enlightens every man that comes into the world. He said, "Learn of me," whose doctrine, and that of the apostle, is not to swear; but "let your yes be yes, and your no be no, in all your communications; for whatever else is said is evil:" they that go into more than yes and no go into evil, and are out of the doctrine of Christ. If you say, "that the oath was the end of controversy and strife:" those who are in strife are out of Christ's doctrine; for he is the covenant of peace, and who are in that, are in the covenant of peace. The apostle brings that but as an example: as men swearing by the greater, and the oath was the end of controversy and strife among men; saying, verily, men swear by the greater; but God having no greater swears by himself concerning Christ; who has come and taught not to swear at all. So those who are in him, and follow him, cannot but abide in his doctrine. If you say, "They swore under the law, and under the prophets:" Christ is the end of the law and of the prophets, to everyone that believes for righteousness sake. Now mark, "if you believe, I am the light of the world, which enlightens every man that comes into the world," said Christ, by whom it was made; now every man of you that is come into the world is enlightened with a light that comes from Christ, by which the world was made, that all of you through him might believe; that is the reason he enlightens you. Now if you do believe in the light as Christ commands, "Believe in the light, that you may be children of light;" you believe in Christ, and come to learn of him, who is the way to the Father. This is the light which shows your evil actions, the ungodly deeds you have committed, the ungodly speeches you have spoken; and all your oaths, cursed speaking, and ungodly actions. If you hearken to this light, it will let you see all that you have done contrary to it; and loving it, it will turn you from your evil deeds, evil ways, and evil words, to Christ, who is not of the world; but is the light, which lights every man that comes into the world, and testifies against the world, that the deeds of that are evil. So does the light in every man, received from him, testify against all evil works, that they are contrary to the light: and each shall give an account, at the day of judgment for every idle word that is spoken. This light shall bring every tongue to confess, yes and every knee to bow, at the name of Jesus: in which light, if you believe, you shall not come into condemnation, but to Christ, who is not of the world, to him by whom it was made; but if you believe not in the light, this is your condemnation, the light, said Christ.

George Fox

This paper passing among them from the jury to the justices, they presented it to the judge; so when we were called before the judge, he told the clerk to give me the paper, and then asked me, whether that seditious paper was mine? I told him, 'if they would read it fully in open court that I might hear it, if it were mine, I would own it, and stand by it.' He would have had me to have taken it, and looked upon it in my own hand; but I again desired, 'that it might be read, that all the country might hear it, and judge whether there was any sedition in it or not; for if there were, I was willing to suffer for it.' At last the clerk of the assize read it with an audible voice, that all the people might hear it. When he had done, I told them, ‘it was my paper, and I would own it; and so might they too, except they would deny the scripture; for was not this scripture language, the words and commands of Christ and the apostle, which all true Christians ought to obey?' Then they dropped that subject; and the judge started in on us again about our hats, telling the jailer to remove them; which he did; and giving them to us, we put them on again. We asked the judge and justices, 'why we had been in prison for these nine weeks, seeing they now objected to nothing about us except our hats?' And as for putting off our hats, I told them, 'that was the honor which God would lay in the dust because they made it so important; the honor which is of men, and which men seek one of another, and is a mark of unbelievers. For "how can you believe," said Christ, "who receive honor one of another, and seek not the honor that comes from God only?" Christ said, "I receive not honor from men;" and all true Christians should be of his mind. Then the judge began to make a pompous speech, how he represented the lord protector's person, who made him lord chief justice of England, and sent him to that circuit, etc. 'We desired him then, that he would do us justice for our false imprisonment which we had suffered nine weeks wrongfully.' But instead of that, they brought an indictment framed against us; such a strange thing, and so full of lies, that I thought it had been against some of the thieves. 'That we came by force and arms, and in a hostile manner into the court;' who were brought as before said. I told them, ‘it was all false; and still we cried for justice for our false imprisonment, being taken up in our journey without cause by major Ceely.' Then this Peter Ceely said to the judge, 'may it please you, my lord, this man (pointing to me) went aside with me, and told me how serviceable I might be for his design; that he could raise forty thousand men at an hour's warning, involve the nation in blood, and so bring in king Charles. I would have escorted him out of the country, but he would not go. If it please you, my lord, I have a witness to swear it.' So he called upon his witness; but the judge not being forward to examine the witness, I desired, 'that he would be pleased to let my warrant be read in the face of the court and country, in which my crime was signified for which I was sent to prison.' The judge said, it should not be read. I said, ‘it ought to be, seeing it concerned my liberty and my life.' The judge said again, ‘It shall not be read.' I said, ‘It ought to be read; for if I have done anything worthy of death, or of bonds, let all the country know it.' Then seeing they would not read it, I spoke to one of my fellow prisoners, 'You have a copy of it, read it.' The judge said, 'It shall not be read. Jailer take him away. I will see whether he or I shall be master.' So I was taken away, and after awhile called for again. I still asked to have the warrant read; for that signified the cause of my imprisonment. I again asked my Friend and fellow prisoner to read it; which he did, and the judge, justices, and the whole court were silent; for the people were eager to hear it. It was as follows:

Peter Ceely, one of the justices of the peace of this county,
to the keeper of his highness's jail at Lanceston,
or his lawful deputy in that behalf, greeting:

‘I send you here by the bearers hereof, the bodies of Edward Pyot, of Bristol, and George Fox, of Drayton in the Clay, in Leicestershire, and William Salt, of London, which they pretend to be the places of their habitations, who go under the belief of Quakers, and acknowledge themselves to be such; who have spread several papers tending to the disturbance of the public peace, and cannot render any lawful cause for coming into those parts, being persons altogether unknown, having no pass for traveling up and down the country, and refusing to give sureties for their good behavior, according to the law in that behalf provided; and refuse to take the oath of abjuration. These are, therefore, in the name of his highness the lord protector, to will and command you, that when the bodies of the said Edward Pyot, George Fox, and William Salt, shall be unto you brought, you them receive, and in his highness's prison before mentioned you safely keep them, until by due course of law they shall be delivered. Hereof fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your perils. Given under my hand and seal, at St. Ives, the 18th day of January, 1655.'

When it was read I spoke thus to the judge and justices, ‘You who say you are chief justice of England, and you justices, know that, if I had put in sureties, I might have gone where I pleased, and have carried on the design, (if I had had one), which major Ceely has charged me with. And if I had spoken those words to him, which he has here declared, judge you whether bail or mainprise could have been taken in that case.' Then, turning my speech to major Ceely, I said, ‘When or where did I take you aside? Was not your house full of rude people, and you were as rude as any of them at our examination; so that I asked for a constable or some other officer to keep the people civil? But if you are my accuser, why do you sit on the bench? It is not the place of accusers to sit with the judge. You ought to come down and stand by me, and look me in the face. Besides, I would ask the judge and justices, whether or not major Ceely is guilty of this treason, which he charges against me, in concealing it so long as he has done? Does he understand his place, either as a soldier or a justice of the peace? For he tells you here, that I went aside with him, and told him what a design I had in hand, and how serviceable he might be for my design; that I could raise forty thousand men in an hour's time, bring in king Charles, and involve the nation in blood. He said, moreover, "he would have aided me out of the country, but I would not go; and therefore he committed me to prison for want of sureties for the good behavior," as the warrant declares. Now do you not see plainly, that major Ceely is guilty of this plot and treason he talks of, and has made himself a party to it, by desiring me to go out of the country, demanding bail of me, and not charging me with this pretended treason until now, nor disclosing it? But I deny and abhor his words, and am innocent of his devilish design.' So that business was let fall; for the judge saw clear enough, that instead of ensnaring me, he had ensnared himself.

Major Ceely got up again, and said, 'If it please you, my lord, to hear me: this man struck me, and gave me such a blow as I never had in my life.' At this I smiled in my heart, and said, 'Major Ceely, are you a justice of peace, and a major of a troop of horse, and tell the judge in the face of the court and country, that I, a prisoner, struck you, and gave you such a blow as you never had the like in your life? What! Are you not ashamed? Pray sir, major Ceely,’ said I, ‘where did I strike you, and who is your witness for that? Who was there?' He said it was in the castle-green, and captain Bradden was standing by when I struck him. 'I desired the judge to let him produce his witness for that; and called again upon major Ceely to come down from the bench, telling him, it was not fit the accuser should sit as judge over the accused.' When I called again for his witness he said captain Bradden was his witness. Then I said, 'Speak, captain Bradden, did you see me give him such a blow and strike him as he said?' Captain Bradden made no answer, but bowed his head towards me. I desired him to speak up, if he knew any such thing; but he only bowed his head again. 'No,' I said, 'speak up, and let the court and country hear; let not bowing of the head serve as the answer. If I have done so, let the law be inflicted on me; I fear not sufferings, nor death itself, for I am an innocent man concerning all his charge.' But captain Bradden never testified to it. The judge, finding those snares would not hold, cried, 'Take him away, jailer;' and when we were taken away, he fined us twenty marks apiece for not putting off our hats; to be kept in prison until we paid it, and sent us back to the jail.

At night captain Bradden came to see us, and seven or eight justices with him who were very civil to us, and told us, they believed, neither the judge nor any in the court gave credit to those charges which major Ceely had accused me of in the face of the country. And captain Bradden said, major Ceely had an intent to have taken away my life, if he could have gotten another witness. 'But,' I said, 'Captain Bradden, why didn’t you witness for me or against me, seeing major Ceely produced you for a witness that you saw me strike him?’ When I desired you to speak either for me or against me, according to what you saw or knew, you would not speak.' 'Why,' he said, 'when major Ceely and I came by you, as you were walking in the castle-green, he put off his hat to you, and said, "How do you do, Mr. Fox? Your servant, sir." Then you said to him, "Major Ceely, take heed of hypocrisy and of a rotten heart; for since when have I been your master and you my servant? Do servants try to cast their masters into prison?" This was the great blow he meant that you gave him.' Then I called to mind that they had walked by us, and that Ceeley had spoken so to me, and I to him; which hypocrisy and rotten-heartedness he showed openly, when he complained of this to the judge in open court, and in the face of the country; and would have made them all believe that I struck him with my hand.

Now were we kept in prison, and many came from far and near to see us, of whom some were people of significant position in the world; for the report of our trial was spread abroad, and our boldness and innocency in our answers to the judge and court was talked about in the town and country. Among others Humphry Lower came to visit us, a grave, sober, ancient man, who had been a justice of peace, and was very sorry we should lie in prison; telling us how serviceable we should be if we were at liberty. We reasoned with him concerning swearing; and acquainted him how they tendered the oath of abjuration to us as a trap because they knew we could not swear; and showed him that no people could be serviceable to God if they disobeyed the command of Christ; and that they who imprisoned us for not removing our hats, which was an honor of men, and men wanted the honor, they imprisoned the good, and grieved the spirit of God in themselves, which should have turned their minds to him. So we directed him to the spirit of God in his heart, the light of Christ Jesus; and he was thoroughly convinced, and continued so to his death, and became very serviceable to us.
There came also to see us, one colonel Rouse, a justice of peace, and a great company with him. He was as full of words and talk, as I ever I heard any man in my life, so that there was no speaking to him. At length I asked him, 'whether he had ever been to school, and knew the difference between questions and answers?' (this I said to stop him.) 'At school!' said he, 'yes.' 'At school!' said the soldiers; does he question our colonel who is a scholar?' Then I said, 'If he is a scholar, let him be still and receive answers to what he has questioned.' Then I was moved of the Lord to speak the word of life to him in God's dreadful power; which came so over him that he could not open his mouth. His face swelled, and was red like a turkey. His lips moved, and he mumbled something; but the people thought he was going to fall down. I stood by him, and then he said that he never been so affected in his life before; for the Lord's power stopped the evil power and air in him so that he was almost choked. The man was very loving ever after to Friends and not so full of airy words to us; though he was full of pride; but the Lord's power came over him as well as the rest of them that were with him.

Another time an officer of the army came to visit; he was a very malicious, bitter professor, whom I had known in London. He was full of airy talk, and spoke slightly of the light of Christ, and against the truth, as colonel Rouse had done, and against the spirit of God being in men, as it was in the apostles' days, until the power of God that bound the evil in him had almost choked him, as it had done to colonel Rouse. For he was so full of evil air, that he could not speak; but blubbered and stuttered. Ever since the Lord's power struck him and came over him, he had been more loving to us.

The assizes were over, and we realized that we were not likely to be released any time soon from prison, so we stopped giving the jailer seven shillings a week apiece for our horses, and seven shillings a week for ourselves, and sent our horses into the country. This caused him to become very wicked and devilish, and he put us down into Doomsdale, a nasty; stinking place, where they used to put witches and murderers after they were condemned to die. The place was so noxious, that it was known few ever came out again in good health. There was no house of office in it; and the excrement of the prisoners, that from time to time had been put there, had not been carried out, (as we were told), for many years. So that it was all like mire, and in some places to the top of the shoes in water and urine; and he would not let us cleanse it, nor suffer us to have beds or straw to lie on. At night some friendly people of the town brought us a candle and a little straw; and we went to burn a little of our straw to take away the stink. The thieves layover our heads, and the head jailer in a room by them over our heads also. It seems the smoke went up into the room where the jailer lay; which put him into such a rage, that he took the pots of excrement from the thieves, and poured them through a hole upon our heads in Doomsdale, until we were so bespattered that we could not touch ourselves nor one another. And the stink increased upon us, so that what with stink and what with smoke, we were almost choked and smothered. We had the stink under our feet before, now we had it on our heads and backs also; and he having quenched our straw with the filth he poured down, had made a great smother in the place. Moreover he railed at us most hideously, calling us hatchet-faced dogs, and such strange names as we had never heard of. In this manner we were obliged to stand all night, for we could not sit down, the place was so full of filthy excrement. For a long time he kept us in this condition before he would let us cleanse it, or allow us to have any food brought in other than what we got through the window grate. One time a girl brought us a little to eat; and he arrested her for breaking in his house, and sued her in the town court for breaking in the prison. He put the young woman to a great deal of trouble; therefore others were so discouraged that we had a lot of difficulty getting water, drink, or food. About this time we sent for a young woman, Ann Downer, from London, who could write and take things well in short-hand, to buy and dress our meat for us. She was very willing to do this for us because it was also upon her spirit to come to us in the love of God; and she was very serviceable to us.

The head jailer, we were informed, had been a thief, and was burnt (to mark him for life as a thief) both in the hand and in the shoulder; his wife, too, had been burnt in the hand. The under jailer had been burnt both in the hand and in the shoulder; his wife had been burnt in the hand also. Colonel Bennet a Baptist teacher, having purchased the jail and lands belonging to the castle, had placed this head jailer there. The prisoners and some wild people would be talking of spirits that haunted Doomsdale, and how many had died in it, thinking perhaps to terrify us. But I told them, 'that if all the spirits and devils in hell were there, I was over them in the power of God, and feared no such thing; for Christ, our priest, would sanctify the walls of the house to us, he who bruised the head of the devil.' The priest was to cleanse the plague out of the walls of the house under the law, which Christ, our priest, ended; who sanctifies both inwardly and outwardly the walls of the house, the walls of the heart, and all things to his people.

As the time for general quarter sessions drew near, and because the jailer was still conducting himself basely and wickedly towards us, we drew up our suffering case, and sent it to the sessions at Bodmin. Upon the reading of which the justices gave an order, 'That Doomsdale door should be opened, and that we should have liberty to cleanse it, and to buy our meat in the town.' We sent up a copy also of our sufferings to the protector, documenting how we were taken and committed by major Ceely, and abused by captain Keat, as before said, and all the rest the abuse in chronological order. Upon which the protector sent an order to captain Fox, governor of Pendennis castle, to examine the matter about the soldiers abusing us, and striking me. There were at that time many of the gentry of the country at the castle; and captain Keat's relative that struck me was sent for before them, and much threatened. They told him, 'If I should change my principle, I might ask for the extreme penalty that the law allowed against him, and might recover damages against him.' Captain Keat was also stopped for allowing the prisoners under his charge to be abused. This was of great service in the country; for afterwards Friends might have spoken in any market or steeple-house in the area, and nobody would interfere with them. I understood that Hugh Peters, one of the protector’s chaplains, told him, 'They could not do George Fox a greater service for the spreading of his principles in Cornwall than to imprison him there.' And indeed my imprisonment there was of the Lord, and for his service in those parts; for after the assizes were over, and it was known we were likely to continue prisoners, several Friends from most parts of the nation came into the country to visit us. Those parts of the west were very dark countries at that time; but the Lord's light and truth broke forth, shined over all, and many were turned from darkness to light, and from satan's power unto God. Many were moved to go to the steeple-houses, several were sent to prison to us, and a great convincement began in the country: for now we had liberty to walk in the castle-green, and many people came to us on First-days, to whom we declared the word of life. Great services were had, many were turned to God, up and down the country; but great rage got up in the priests and professors against the truth and us. One of the envious professors had gathered together many scripture sentences to prove, 'that we ought to put off our hats to the people,' and he invited the town of Lanceston to come into the castle yard to hear him read them. Among other instances that he quoted was, 'that Saul bowed to the witch of Endor.' When he had done we got a little liberty to speak, and showed both him and the people, 'that Saul had left the favor or God and had disobeyed him, like them, when he went to the witch of Endor: that neither the prophets,  or Christ,  or the apostles ever taught people to bow to a witch.' The man went away with his rude people; but some stayed with us, and we showed them that it was not gospel instruction to teach people to bow to a witch. For now people began to be affected with the truth, and the devil's rage increased, so that we were often in great danger.

{A Justice of the Peace came to visit us out of Wales; he came to be a fine minister and turned many to the Spirit of God, to sit under Christ's teaching. These people then suffered imprisonment. One of them convinced three priests, and one became a fine minister standing till this day}.

One time a soldier came to us, and while one of our Friends was admonishing and exhorting him to sobriety, I saw him begin to draw his sword. Upon which I stood up to him and represented what a shame it was  to draw his sword upon a swordless man, and a prisoner, and how unfit and unworthy he was to carry such a weapon; and that, if he should have done such a thing to some men, they would have taken his sword from him and have broken it to pieces. So he was ashamed and went his way; and the Lord's power preserved us.
Another time, about eleven at night, the jailer being half drunk, came and told me, he had a man now to dispute with me, (this was when we had permission to go a little into the town). As soon as he had spoken these words, I sensed there was a plot to harm me within his words. All that night and the next day as I lay down on a plot of grass to sleep,  I felt something around my body; and I sat up and struck at it in the power of the Lord, but it was still around my body. Then I arose and walked on to the castle green, and the under keeper came and told me that there was a young woman who wished to speak with me in the prison. I sensed a trap in his words too; therefore I did not go into the prison, but to the window grate; and when I looked  in, I saw a man that had lately been brought to prison for being a conjurer, (a psychic who uses supernatural powers), who had a naked knife in his hand. I spoke to him, and he threatened to "cut my cheeks," as was his expression; but since he was within the jail, he was unable to reach me.

This was the jailer's great disputer. Soon after this I went into the jailer's house and found him at breakfast; he had the same conjurer out of jail with him. I told the jailer that his plot had been discovered. Then he got up from the table and cast his napkin away in a rage; and I left them, and went away to my chamber; for at this time we were out of Doomsdale. At the time the jailer had said the dispute should be, I went down and walked in the court, (the place appointed), until about the eleven; but nobody came. Then I went up to my chamber again; and after awhile, I heard someone call my name. I stepped to the head of the stairs head where I saw the jailer's wife on the stairs, and the conjurer was at the bottom of the stairs holding his hand behind his back and in a great rage. I asked him, ‘Man, your hand behind your back?  Bring out your hand to the front,' I said; 'let us see your hand, and what you have in it?' Then he angrily pulled his hand around with a naked knife in it. Then I showed the jailer's wife their wicked design against me; for this was the man they had brought to dispute of the things of God. But the Lord discovered their plot, and prevented their evil design; and they both raged, and the conjurer threatened me. Then I was moved of the Lord to speak sharply to him in the dreadful power of the Lord; and the Lord's power came over him, and bound him down; so that he never after dared appear before me or to speak to me. I saw it was the Lord alone that preserved me out of their bloody hands; for the devil had a great enmity to me, and stirred up his instruments to seek my hurt. But the Lord prevented them, and my heart was filled with thanksgivings and praises to him.

{Several of the townspeople came to be convinced of the truth and became very loving. Judge Haggett's wife came from Bristol to visit us, (of the second assizes), and she was convinced along with several of her children. Her husband then became very loving and servicable to Friends for he had a great love for God's people, which he retained until he died; and so did his children.

And this same year Mary Fell, the eight year old daughter of Judge Fell, was moved to go to priest Lampitt, (the priest of the Calvinist Independent church that her family previousl attended), to tell him that the Lord would pour out the vials of his wrath upon him; and when the King came in, he lost his job as a priest.}

Out of the mouths of babes and unweaned infants
You have established strength because of Your foes,
that You might silence the enemy and the avenger.
Psa 8:2

[Further on the youth called by God to his service: Patience Scott was eleven years old, living in Providence, Rhode Island. The Lord called her to go to Boston, 105 miles distant, where she preached for about three weeks, before being cast into prison for three months by the envious Puritan magistrates. Upon being examined, her answers were so far beyond the ordinary capacity of a child of her years, that the governor confessed there was a spirit in her beyond the spirit of woman; but being blind, and not seeing God perfecting his praise out of the child's mouth, he said it was the devil." William Robinson, in writing to George Fox about a month after their imprisonment, thus alludes to her. "Here is a daughter of Katherine Scott, who is a prisoner in the jailer's house. She is a fine child, and is finely kept. She is about eleven or twelve years of age, and is of good understanding." After an imprisonment of about three months, Patience Scott was brought up for trial. The court, however, was somewhat perplexed with her case. Formally to banish a mere child for professing Quakerism, partook too much of the ridiculous to be enforced, and at last it was concluded to discharge her. The record made on this occasion was singular. "The court duly considering the malice of Satan and his instruments, by all means and ways to propagate error and disturb the truth, and bring in confusion among us,—that Satan is put to his shifts to make use of such a child, not being of the years of discretion, nor understanding the principles of religion, judge proper so far to slight her as a Quaker, as only to admonish and instruct her according to her capacity, and so discharge her; Captain Hutchinson undertaking to send her home."

The fact of a person young as she was being called to the ministry, is not a solitary one in the history of the Quakers. George Newland, a youth of Ireland, entered upon this gospel service in his twelfth year; he died about the age of nineteen, and about six years before his death, labored in the churches in his native land, to the comfort and edification of his friends. Ellis Lewis, of North Wales, felt constrained to engage in the ministry in his thirteenth year. His first communication was made in the English language, with which he was not familiar, and it is stated to have been "remarkable and tendering." Another instance of early dedication and submission to this divine call, was that of the noted William Hunt, of North Carolina. He entered upon gospel labors when about fourteen. At eleven years of age he had remarkable openings in divine things. Christiana Barclay, the daughter of Robert Barclay the Apologist, also entered on this important work when about fourteen years old. Many other young persons among Friends in the fourteenth, fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth years of their age, it is well known, were also called by Him whose "Spirit blows where it likes to proclaim to others, the unsearchable riches of his heavenly kingdom.]

Now while I was visited by various sorts of people, some having come in good will to visit us, some out of an envious carping mind to wrangle and dispute with us, and some out of curiosity to see us; Edward Pyot, who before his convincement had been a captain in the army, and had a good understanding in the laws and rights of the people, being sensible of the injustice and envy of judge Glyn to us at our trial, took it on himself to try to make Glyn sensible to his injustices and wrote an epistle to him on behalf of us all which was as follows:

To John Glyn, chief justice of England.


We are freemen of England, free-born; our rights and liberties are according to law, and ought to be defended by it; therefore, with you, by whose hand we have so long suffered, and still do suffer, let us a little plainly reason concerning your proceedings against us, whether they have been according to law, and agreeable to your duty and office, as chief minister of the law or justice of England? In meekness and lowliness abide, that the witness of God in your conscience may be heard to speak and judge in this matter; for you and we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ so that everyone may receive according to what he has done, whether it be good or bad. Therefore, friend, in moderation and soberness weigh what is within this letter sent to you.

In the afternoon, before we were brought before you at the assize at Lanceston, you ordered several scores of our books to be violently taken from us by armed men, without due process of law; which books were perused to see if anything in them could be found to have been laid to our charge, (who were innocent men); and then regarding our legal issue, you have withheld the charges from us to this very day. Our books are our goods, our goods are our property, and our liberty it is to have and enjoy our property: and of our liberty and property the law is the defense; which said, "No freeman shall be deprived of his freehold, liberties, or free customs, etc. nor in any way otherwise destroyed: nor we shall not pass upon him, but by lawful judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. Magna Charta, chap. 29. Now, friend, consider, is not the taking away of a man's goods violently, by force of arms, as before stated, contrary to the law of the land? Is not the keeping of them, so taken away, a deprivation to him of his property, and a destruction of it and his liberty, yes, his very being, so far as the invading of the guard the law sets about him is in order there? Does not the law call this the destruction of a man? Is there any more than one common guard or defense to property, liberty, and life, viz. the law? And can this guard be broken on the former, viz. property and liberty, and the latter, viz. life to be sure? Does not he that who invades a man's property and liberty, (which he does, who, contrary to law, which is the guard, acts against either), make an invasion upon a man's life; since what is the ground of the one is also of the other? If a penny or penny's worth be taken from a man contrary to law, may not by the same rule all a man has be taken away? If the bond of the law be broken upon a man's property, may it not on the same ground be broken upon his person? And by the same reason as it is broken on one man, may it not be broken upon all, since the liberty, property, and beings of all men under a government are relative, a communion of wealth, as the members in the body, but one guard and defense to all, the law? One man cannot be injured in this, but it redounds to all. Do not such things tend to the subversion and dissolution of government? Where there is no law, what has become of government? And of what value is the law made, when the ministers of that break it at pleasure upon men's properties, liberties, and persons? Can you clear yourself of these things as regards to us? To that of God in your conscience, which is just, do I speak. Have you acted like a minister, the chief minister of the law, who has taken our goods, and still hold them, without so much as going by lawful warrant, grounded upon due information, which in our case you could not have for none had perused them to give you information? Should you exercise violence and force of arms on prisoners' goods, in their prison chamber, instead of proceeding orderly and legally, which your place calls upon you above any man to tender, defend, and maintain against wrong, and to preserve and entirely guard every man's being, liberty, and livelihood? Should you, whose duty it is to punish the wrong doer, do wrong yourself; Who ought to see the law is kept and observed, break the law, and turn aside the due administration of that! Surely, from you, considering you are chief justice of England, other things were expected, both by us and by the people of this nation.

And friend, when we were brought before you and stood upon our legal issue, and no accuser or accusation came in against us, as to what we had been wrongfully imprisoned for, and in prison detained for the space of nine weeks, should not you have caused us to have been acquitted by proclamation? Does not the law say so? Ought you not to have examined the cause of our commitment, and there not appearing a lawful cause, to have discharged us? Is it not the substance of your office and duty, to do justice according to the law and custom of England? Is not this the end of the administration of the law? Of the general assizes? Of the jail deliveries? Of the judges going the circuits? Have not you, by doing otherwise, acted contrary to all these, and to Magna Charta? which Chap. 29 said, "We shall sell to no man, we shall deny or defer to no man, either justice or right." Have you not both deferred and denied to us, who had been so long oppressed, this justice and right? And when of you justice we demanded, said you not, "if we would be uncovered [hats removed from head], you would hear us, and do us justice?" "We shall sell to no man, we shall deny or defer to no man either justice or right," said Magna Charta as before said: again, "We have commanded all our justices, that they shall from here forward do even law, and execution of right to all our subjects, rich and poor, without having regard to any man's person; and without letting to do right for any letters or commandment which may come to them from us, or from any other, or by any other cause, upon pain to be at our will, body, lands, and goods, to do therewith as shall please us, in case they do contrary," said stat. 20 Edw. 3. Chap. 1. Again, "You shall swear, that you shall do even law and execution of right to all, rich, and poor, without having regard to any person; and that you deny to no man common right by the king's letters, nor none other man's, nor for none-other cause. And in case any letter come to you contrary to the law, that you do nothing by such letter; but certify the king of that, and go forth to do the law notwithstanding those letters. And in case you are from henceforth found in default in any of the points before said, you shall be at the king's will of body, lands, and goods, of that to be done, as shall please him," said the oath appointed by the statute to be taken by all the judges. Stat. 18 Ed. 3. But none of these, nor any other law, has such an expression or condition in it as this: "provided he will put off his hat to you, or be uncovered." Nor does the law of God so say, or that your persons be respected; but the contrary. From where then comes this new law, "if you will be uncovered, I will hear you, and do you justice?” This hearing complaint of wrong, this doing of justice upon condition; wherein lies the equity and the reasonableness of that? When were these fundamental laws repealed, which were the issue of so much blood and war; which to uphold, cost the miseries and blood of the late wars, that we shall now be heard, as to right, and have justice done us but upon condition, and that too, such a trifling one as the putting off the hat? Does your saying so, who are commanded, as before said, repeal them, and make them of no effect, and all the miseries undergone, and the blood shed for them of old and of late years? Whether it be so or not indeed, and to the nation, you have made it so to us; to whom you have denied the justice of our liberty when we were before you, and no accuser nor accusation came in against us, and the hearing of the wrong done to us who are innocent, and the doing us right. And bonds have you cast and continued upon us until this day, under an unreasonable and cruel jailer, for not performing that your condition, for conscience sake. But do you think that your own conditional justice makes void the law; or can it do so; or absolve you before God or man or acquit the penalty mentioned in the laws before said; unto which have you not consented and sworn? namely, "And in case you are from here forward found in default in any of the points before said, you shall be at the king's will, of body, lands, and goods, of that to be done as shall please him." And is not your saying, "if you will be uncovered, [or put off your hats], I will hear you, and do you justice;" and because we could not put them off for conscience sake, your denying us justice, and refusing to hear us, as to wrong, who had so unjustly suffered, a default in you against the very essence of those laws, yes, an overthrow of that, for which things' sake, (being of the highest importance to the well-being of men), so just, so equal, so necessary those laws were made, and all the provisions therein. To make a default in any one point of which provisions, exposes to the said penalty. Do not you by this time see where you are? Are you sure you shall never be made to understand and feel the justice of that?  Is your seat so high and your fence so great, and are you so certain of your time and station, above all that have gone before you, whom justice has cut down, and given them their due, that you shall never be called to an account, nor with its long and sure stroke be reached?

Deceive not yourself, God has come nearer to judgment than the workers of iniquity in this age imagine, who persecute and evil treat those that witness the just and Holy One, for their witnessing of him, who is come to reign forever and ever. Did he not say that he will be a swift witness against the false swearers? God is not mocked.

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